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考研英语40篇大作文演练与点评第6篇,考研英语

文章作者:考试培训 上传时间:2019-05-06

  6 Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should:

Paul Graham
September 2012

  7 Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should:

  1. describe the drawing,

A startup is a company designed to grow fast. Being newly founded does not in itself make a company a startup. Nor is it necessary for a startup to work on technology, or take venture funding, or have some sort of "exit." The only essential thing is growth. Everything else we associate with startups follows from growth.

  1. describe the drawing,

  2. interpret its meaning, and

If you want to start one it's important to understand that. Startups are so hard that you can't be pointed off to the side and hope to succeed. You have to know that growth is what you're after. The good news is, if you get growth, everything else tends to fall into place. Which means you can use growth like a compass to make almost every decision you face.

  2. interpret its meaning, and

  3. make your comment.

Redwoods

  3. make your comment.

  You should write 160~200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Let's start with a distinction that should be obvious but is often overlooked: not every newly founded company is a startup. Millions of companies are started every year in the US. Only a tiny fraction are startups. Most are service businesses—restaurants, barbershops, plumbers, and so on. These are not startups, except in a few unusual cases. A barbershop isn't designed to grow fast. Whereas a search engine, for example, is.

  You should write 160~200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  该文分三段。第一段描述图画并定性说这种做法是极端危险的。第二段从两个方面进行剖析。最后一段表明自己的观点,并提出解决办法。In the picture presented to us, a person is investing all the money in the stock market—he even sells his car and raises a mortgage on his apartment. To me, a bystander, this is an extremely dangerous action.

When I say startups are designed to grow fast, I mean it in two senses. Partly I mean designed in the sense of intended, because most startups fail. But I also mean startups are different by nature, in the same way a redwood seedling has a different destiny from a bean sprout.

  该文可分三段来写。第一段描述图画。第二段分析该图画所代表的现象。第三段谈解决问题的办法。I am sure that any one of you will be as shocked as me while looking at the two pictures: a person at the crossroads wants to know the right road to Li village, but only after he puts a coin into the slot does the signpost begin to point directions. What a genius design—we can expect that after some time a large sum of money will be collected with little effort.

  Why has he become so crazy? He must be dreaming of making big money one day, but does he know that it has become exceedingly difficult for individual investors to survive in todays stock market? On the one hand, the market is full of institutional investors who are equipped with not only advanced techniques but also latest information. On the other hand, anyone is told that only a small part of people will make money in the market when he enters the market, but when his mind is full of greedy ideas, how can he carry out careful analysis and comprehensive reasoning so as to make sound judgment?

That difference is why there's a distinct word, "startup," for companies designed to grow fast. If all companies were essentially similar, but some through luck or the efforts of their founders ended up growing very fast, we wouldn't need a separate word. We could just talk about super-successful companies and less successful ones. But in fact startups do have a different sort of DNA from other businesses. Google is not just a barbershop whose founders were unusually lucky and hard-working. Google was different from the beginning.

  The above pictures remind us of a common phenomenon in the present society. Some government departments try in a hundred and one ways to collect money by inventing different names. Obviously, they put economic interests in the first place and forget the promise to work for the public benefits.

  Personally I do not agree with the above choice at all. My suggestion is that anyone who wants to make money should receive professional training and then practice in the virtual market for at least a year. If a person can not do that, he had better leave this place full of danger and risks, for it will often be too late when he realizes that the cost is unbearable.第一段对图画进行了描述。而后立即对这种做法进行定性,显得相当果断。如果不加这句话,第一段则只有一句,显得有点短了。

To grow rapidly, you need to make something you can sell to a big market. That's the difference between Google and a barbershop. A barbershop doesn't scale.

  To prevent such unpleasantness from happening again, laws should be established to standardize the various expenses of the government in the first place. When their rights and obligations become transparent, common people will realize whether an expense is reasonable or not. Moreover, a supervisory mechanism should be set up as soon as possible—only under the joint efforts of the mass media and all citizens, can we have a society of fairness and justice.第一段描述图画,将两图的对比突显了出来。

  第二段首先使用一短一长两个反问句的经典用法,非常有力——他为什么变得如此疯狂?他一定想赚大钱,但是他知道在今天的股市中个人投资者的生存已变得极端困难了吗?而后分两方面谈:先说市场中充斥着兼具技术和信息的机构投资者;而后说每个人进场前都听说只有少数人赚钱,但是当脑中充满贪欲之时,哪里还能用细致分析和充分推理来帮助做出正确的判断呢?

For a company to grow really big, it must (a) make something lots of people want, and (b) reach and serve all those people. Barbershops are doing fine in the (a) department. Almost everyone needs their hair cut. The problem for a barbershop, as for any retail establishment, is (b). A barbershop serves customers in person, and few will travel far for a haircut. And even if they did the barbershop couldn't accomodate them. [1]

  第二段首句是段落统领句。第二句说有些政府部门千方百计巧立名目来捞钱。第三句说他们将经济利益放在首位,忘了为公众服务的承诺。

  第三段的首句斩钉截铁地表示自己不同意上述的选择。而后提出建议:任何人进入市场前必须经过专业培训,并且在虚拟股市中锤炼至少一年。如果做不到,就应该远离这充满危险的地方。要想在大作文上得到高分,是很不容易的事情。“文似看山不喜平”,在结构和内容达到要求之后,语言上可以作一点变化。该文的第二段共使用了三处反问句,这是一种相当新颖的手法。一般来说,连用两个反问句已经是一种高级写法,主要有两个平行反问句(如均是条件状语从句加反问句)和一短一长两种情形。这里用了三个反问句,与看到图中人物极度不理智的做法后的一吐为快的心情是相吻合的。

Writing software is a great way to solve (b), but you can still end up constrained in (a). If you write software to teach Tibetan to Hungarian speakers, you'll be able to reach most of the people who want it, but there won't be many of them. If you make software to teach English to Chinese speakers, however, you're in startup territory.

  第三段首先讲应立法来规范政府收费。次句说当权利和义务变得透明时,普通人会知道某项收费是否合理。第三句说应尽快建立监督机制——只有媒体与公众同心协心,我们才能拥有平等与公正的社会。双图的情形总体上比单图少,描述时应注意突显对比或时间的接续。将图中事件与某种社会现象建立联系,是非常关键的步骤。这种联系有时不是唯一的,如2003年真题中的花朵就既可以指对孩子的教育,也可以指全球经济一体化下的某些国内企业,而这两种写法都可以得到很高的分数。大家不妨将读图的实践做一记录,看看哪些理解对了,哪些理解有偏差,经过这样的训练,准确率将大大提高。

Most businesses are tightly constrained in (a) or (b). The distinctive feature of successful startups is that they're not.

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Ideas

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It might seem that it would always be better to start a startup than an ordinary business. If you're going to start a company, why not start the type with the most potential? The catch is that this is a (fairly) efficient market. If you write software to teach Tibetan to Hungarians, you won't have much competition. If you write software to teach English to Chinese speakers, you'll face ferocious competition, precisely because that's such a larger prize. [2]

  特别说明:由于各方面情况的不断调整与变化,新浪网所提供的所有考试信息仅供参考,敬请考生以权威部门公布的正式信息为准。

The constraints that limit ordinary companies also protect them. That's the tradeoff. If you start a barbershop, you only have to compete with other local barbers. If you start a search engine you have to compete with the whole world.

The most important thing that the constraints on a normal business protect it from is not competition, however, but the difficulty of coming up with new ideas. If you open a bar in a particular neighborhood, as well as limiting your potential and protecting you from competitors, that geographic constraint also helps define your company. Bar neighborhood is a sufficient idea for a small business. Similarly for companies constrained in (a). Your niche both protects and defines you.

Whereas if you want to start a startup, you're probably going to have to think of something fairly novel. A startup has to make something it can deliver to a large market, and ideas of that type are so valuable that all the obvious ones are already taken.

That space of ideas has been so thoroughly picked over that a startup generally has to work on something everyone else has overlooked. I was going to write that one has to make a conscious effort to find ideas everyone else has overlooked. But that's not how most startups get started. Usually successful startups happen because the founders are sufficiently different from other people that ideas few others can see seem obvious to them. Perhaps later they step back and notice they've found an idea in everyone else's blind spot, and from that point make a deliberate effort to stay there. [3] But at the moment when successful startups get started, much of the innovation is unconscious.

What's different about successful founders is that they can see different problems. It's a particularly good combination both to be good at technology and to face problems that can be solved by it, because technology changes so rapidly that formerly bad ideas often become good without anyone noticing. Steve Wozniak's problem was that he wanted his own computer. That was an unusual problem to have in 1975. But technological change was about to make it a much more common one. Because he not only wanted a computer but knew how to build them, Wozniak was able to make himself one. And the problem he solved for himself became one that Apple solved for millions of people in the coming years. But by the time it was obvious to ordinary people that this was a big market, Apple was already established.

Google has similar origins. Larry Page and Sergey Brin wanted to search the web. But unlike most people they had the technical expertise both to notice that existing search engines were not as good as they could be, and to know how to improve them. Over the next few years their problem became everyone's problem, as the web grew to a size where you didn't have to be a picky search expert to notice the old algorithms weren't good enough. But as happened with Apple, by the time everyone else realized how important search was, Google was entrenched.

That's one connection between startup ideas and technology. Rapid change in one area uncovers big, soluble problems in other areas. Sometimes the changes are advances, and what they change is solubility. That was the kind of change that yielded Apple; advances in chip technology finally let Steve Wozniak design a computer he could afford. But in Google's case the most important change was the growth of the web. What changed there was not solubility but bigness.

The other connection between startups and technology is that startups create new ways of doing things, and new ways of doing things are, in the broader sense of the word, new technology. When a startup both begins with an idea exposed by technological change and makes a product consisting of technology in the narrower sense (what used to be called "high technology"), it's easy to conflate the two. But the two connections are distinct and in principle one could start a startup that was neither driven by technological change, nor whose product consisted of technology except in the broader sense. [4]

Rate

How fast does a company have to grow to be considered a startup? There's no precise answer to that. "Startup" is a pole, not a threshold. Starting one is at first no more than a declaration of one's ambitions. You're committing not just to starting a company, but to starting a fast growing one, and you're thus committing to search for one of the rare ideas of that type. But at first you have no more than commitment. Starting a startup is like being an actor in that respect. "Actor" too is a pole rather than a threshold. At the beginning of his career, an actor is a waiter who goes to auditions. Getting work makes him a successful actor, but he doesn't only become an actor when he's successful.

So the real question is not what growth rate makes a company a startup, but what growth rate successful startups tend to have. For founders that's more than a theoretical question, because it's equivalent to asking if they're on the right path.

The growth of a successful startup usually has three phases:

Together these three phases produce an S-curve. The phase whose growth defines the startup is the second one, the ascent. Its length and slope determine how big the company will be.

The slope is the company's growth rate. If there's one number every founder should always know, it's the company's growth rate. That's the measure of a startup. If you don't know that number, you don't even know if you're doing well or badly.

When I first meet founders and ask what their growth rate is, sometimes they tell me "we get about a hundred new customers a month." That's not a rate. What matters is not the absolute number of new customers, but the ratio of new customers to existing ones. If you're really getting a constant number of new customers every month, you're in trouble, because that means your growth rate is decreasing.

During Y Combinator we measure growth rate per week, partly because there is so little time before Demo Day, and partly because startups early on need frequent feedback from their users to tweak what they're doing. [6]

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